Agapurin user's manual
Agapurin is a drug that improves vascular microcirculation, and also strengthens and improves the structure of the vascular wall.
Active substance: Pentoxifylline.
Latin name: Agapurin.
Form of issue
Agapurin is produced in tablets containing 100 mg Pentoxifylline.
Agapurin belongs to the purine group and has a moderate spasmolytic effect (ie, relaxes the smooth muscle). Due to this, it improves blood flow even in vessels of the smallest caliber and promotes improvement of the rheological characteristics of the blood. The pentoxifylline induced vasodilation leads to a decrease in the total peripheral resistance of the vessels, an increase in the impact and minute volume of the heart. There is no increase in the heart rate.
The mechanism for preventing thrombosis is associated with irreversible inhibition of phosphodiesterase, an increase in the concentration in platelets of cAMP and accumulation of ATP in erythrocytes.
No less important is the mechanism of Agapurin's influence on the coronary arteries. Pentoxifylline exhibits a moderate antianginal effect by expanding not only the blood vessels of the heart, but also the lungs.
The drug has the ability to increase the tone of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles (respiratory muscles).
With occlusive diseases of the lower extremities (obliterating endarteritis or atherosclerosis), the drug, due to antispasmodic and antiaggregant action, effectively eliminates nocturnal cramps , raises the distance of walking, and closes pain in calf muscles at rest.
After oral administration, Agapurin is completely absorbed through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. After that, he undergoes entero-hepatic circulation with the formation of two active metabolites. The maximum concentration of Pentoxifylline in the blood plasma is reached within 1 hour.
The drug is mainly excreted through the system of excretory organs (kidneys). At the same time, 90% of the whole taken dose completely leaves the body for 4 hours. Also, the drug is secreted into breast milk during lactation.
With severe degrees of renal failure, the release of the drug is slowed. With liver failure, the half-life is prolonged, and bioavailability is increased.
Indications for use
- Violation of blood supply to tissues in atrosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, as well as inflammatory processes of various etiologies;
- Violation of blood circulation in the vessels of the brain, caused by ischemic vascular lesions;
- Encephalopathy of atherosclerotic and discirculatory nature;
- Different genesis of angiopathy ( Raynaud's syndrome );
- Trophic changes in the skin and underlying tissues that have developed as a result of disturbed venous or arterial blood flow (postthrombophlebitic syndrome, gangrene, frostbite, trophic ulcers);
- Obliterating endarteritis;
- With disturbances of the blood supply to the retina;
- Pathology of the middle ear (deafness that has arisen on the basis of vascular disorders).
Method of administration and dose
Agapurin tablets are taken after eating, at the same time of day, with plenty of water. You can not chew the medicine.
The starting dose of Pentoxifylline is 200 mg 3 times daily for 7 days. In the case of a sharp decrease in blood pressure, as well as pathological symptoms on the part of the digestive or nervous system, the dose is reduced to 100 mg (equivalent to 1 tablet) 3 times a day.
For maintenance therapy use a dose of 100 mg in the morning, lunch and evening. In this case, the drug is taken regularly for several months.
The maximum permissible daily dose is 1200 mg.
With a creatinine level of more than 400 mmol / l (chronic or acute renal failure), the dose taken is reduced by 30% or 50%.
- Acute period of myocardial ischemia (infarction, unstable angina ).
- Hemorrhagic stroke in acute period.
- Hemorrhage in the retina of the eye.
- Severe atherosclerotic obliteration of the coronary or cerebral vessels.
- Heart rhythm disturbances, which are accompanied by hemodynamic disorders.
- Age younger than 18 years.
- Hypersensitivity to the constituent components of the drug.
To avoid orthostatic collapse, careful monitoring of the blood pressure level during the administration of the drug is necessary.
Patients receiving regular hypoglycemic therapy should regularly monitor the blood glucose level, Under the influence of Pentoxifylline may occur hypoglycemic conditions.
After recent surgical interventions, special care should be taken in appointing Agapurin. In the event that the use of the drug is absolutely indicated to the patient, it is necessary to regularly monitor the parameters of the blood coagulation system.
In the treatment of patients older than 60 years, the dose should be selected strictly individually. In this case, starting pharmacotherapy is recommended with minimal doses of the drug.
Under the influence of smoking, the pharmacological efficacy of the drug may decrease.
If the daily dose of the medicinal product is repeatedly exceeded, symptoms such as
- Loss of consciousness.
- Redness of the skin.
- Bleeding from the vessels of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract (vomiting, like "coffee grounds").
- Chills, accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
- Attack of tonic-clonic seizures.
- Tachycardia .
There is no specific antidote for the drug, therefore, when Agapurin is intoxicated, symptomatic pharmacotherapy is performed, aimed at maintaining vital body functions.
Pentoxifylline is able to potentiate the effect of drugs that affect the process of blood coagulation. Among them: indirect and direct anticoagulants, as well as thrombolytics. The amount of side effects can be noted when Agapurin is used together with antibacterial agents of the cephalosporin series (1-2 generation). It is also undesirable to use Pentoxifylline together with valproate (valproate derivatives).
Due to its pharmacodynamic effects, Agapurin increases the effectiveness of such drugs as: antihypertensive drugs, oral hypoglycemic medications and insulin.
The blocker of histamine receptors Cimetidine is able to increase the concentration of Pentoxifylline in the serum. This can lead to a number of side effects or symptoms of an overdose.
Agapurin should not be combined with xanthines, since such pharmacotherapy can lead to the appearance of symptoms of nervous excitement in the patient.
Use in pregnant and lactating women
The drug is prohibited to use.
- Nervous system: convulsive seizures, insomnia, dizziness, anxiety, headache.
- Soft tissues (subcutaneous fatty tissue and skin): redness (congestion) of the face, sensation of hot flushes to the upper part of the trunk, swelling, increased brittleness of the nails.
- Alimentary tract: exacerbation of symptoms of cholecystitis, cholestatic character, dry mouth, intestinal atony, decreased appetite.
- Organs of the senses: the appearance of bright spots or circles before the eyes, reduced visual acuity.
- Organs of hematopoiesis and hemostasis system: a decrease in the level of platelets, leukocytes, fibrinogen, bleeding from the vessels of the mucous membranes of the digestive organs.
- Allergic reactions of immediate or delayed types.
- Laboratory abnormalities in biochemical analyzes: increase in ALT, LDH, AST, APF.
Analogues of Agapurin
Trental 400, Pentoxifylline Rivo, Flexitale, Pentoxifylline-ICN, Pentoxifylline, Pentoxifylline-Teva, Pentoxifylline Acri, Pentoxifylline-Eskom, Pentoxifylline-FPO, Radomine, Agapurin retard, Pentomere, Ralofect 300, Ralofect, Trental, H Trenpental, Pentohexal, Pentylin Fort, Pentamon, Pentoxifylline, Arbiflex-100, Pentylin, Agapurin 600 retard, Arbiflex-400 Vazonite, Agapurin SR
Prices of Agapurin
Agapurin tablets, coated with 100 mg, 60 pcs. - 200-250r.