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Adenoids in children


Adenoids in children

Adenoids in children

Adenoids - a fairly common disease that occurs with the same frequency as in girls and boys aged 3 to 10 years (there may be slight deviations from the age norm). As a rule, parents of such children often have to “sit on the hospital”, which usually becomes the reason for going to doctors for a more detailed examination. This is how adenoiditis is found, because a diagnosis can only be made by an otolaryngologist - on examination of other specialists (including the pediatrician) the problem is not visible.

Adenoids - what is it?

Adenoids are the pharyngeal tonsil located in the nasopharynx. It has an important function - it protects the body from infections. During the struggle, its tissues grow, and after recovery, they normally return to their former size. However, due to frequent and protracted diseases, the nasopharyngeal tonsil becomes pathologically large, and in this case the diagnosis is “adenoid hypertrophy”. If, moreover, there is inflammation, the diagnosis already sounds like "adenoiditis."

Adenoids are a problem that is rare in adults. But children suffer from the disease quite often. It is all about the imperfection of the immune system of young organisms, which in the period of penetration of the infection works with increased stress.

Causes of adenoids in children

The following causes of adenoids in children are the most common:

  • Genetic "inheritance" - predisposition to adenoids is genetically transmitted and in this case is caused by pathologies in the device of the endocrine and lymphatic systems (this is why children with adenoiditis often have associated problems such as reduced thyroid function, overweight, lethargy, apathy, etc.). d.)
  • Problem pregnancies, difficult labor - viral diseases transferred by the expectant mother in the first trimester, her taking toxic drugs and antibiotics during this period, fetal hypoxia, baby's asphyxia and injuries during childbirth - all this, in the doctors' opinion, increases the chances of that the child will later be diagnosed with adenoids.
  • The characteristics of an early age — especially the feeding of a baby, dietary disorders, the abuse of sweets and preservatives, and diseases of the baby — at an early age all this also affects the increase in the risk of adenoiditis in the future.

In addition, the chances of occurrence of the disease increases the adverse environmental conditions, allergies in the history of the child and his family members, weakness of immunity, and, as a result, frequent viral and colds.

Symptoms of adenoids in children

In order to consult a doctor in time, when treatment is still possible in a conservative way without a traumatic child psychic operation, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the symptoms of adenoids. They may be as follows:

  • Difficult breathing is the first and sure sign when a child constantly or very often breathes through the mouth;
  • A runny nose that worries a child constantly, and discharge is distinguished by a serous character;
  • Sleep is accompanied by snoring and wheezing, possibly choking or bouts of apnea;
  • Frequent rhinitis and cough (due to the flow of detachable on the back wall);
  • Hearing problems - frequent otitis, deterioration of hearing (as the growing tissue covers the openings of the auditory tubes);
  • Voice changes - he becomes hoarse and nasal;
  • Frequent inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, sinuses - sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, tonsillitis;
  • Hypoxia, which occurs as a result of oxygen starvation due to persistent breathing, and in the first place the brain suffers (which is why adenoids among schoolchildren even cause a decrease in academic performance);
  • Pathologies in the development of the facial skeleton - due to the constantly open mouth, a specific “adenoid” face is formed: an indifferent facial expression, an overbite, lengthening and narrowing of the lower jaw;
  • Chest deformity - a long course of the disease leads to flattening or even depression of the chest due to the small depth of inhalation;
  • Anemia - occurs in some cases;
  • Signals from the gastrointestinal tract - loss of appetite, diarrhea or constipation.

All of the above states are signs of hypertrophied adenoids. If for some reason they become inflamed, then adenoiditis occurs, and its symptoms may be as follows:

  • temperature rise;
  • weakness;
  • swollen lymph nodes.

Diagnosis of adenoids

To date, in addition to the standard ENT examination, there are other methods for the recognition of adenoids:

  • Endoscopy is the safest and most effective method to see the condition of the nasopharynx on a computer screen (the condition is the absence of inflammatory processes in the body of the subject, otherwise the picture will be unreliable).
  • Radiography - allows you to make accurate conclusions about the size of the adenoids, but it has drawbacks: radiation load on the body of a small patient and low information content in the presence of inflammation in the nasopharynx.

Previously used and the so-called finger research method, but today this very painful examination is not practiced.

Degrees of adenoids

Our doctors distinguish between three degrees of the disease, depending on the size of the growth of the tonsil. In some other countries, there is a grade 4 adenoids, characterized by complete overlap of the nasal passages with connective tissue. The stage of the disease ENT determines during the inspection. But the most accurate results are radiography.

  • 1 degree of adenoids - at this stage of development of the disease, the tissue overlaps about 1/3 of the back of the nasal passages. The child, as a rule, does not experience any problems with breathing during the day. At night, when the adenoids, because of blood flowing to them, swell a little, the patient can breathe through his mouth, sniffle or snore. However, at this stage, the question of removal is not yet underway. Now the chances of coping with the problem in the most conservative manner are as great as possible.
  • 1-2 degree of adenoids - such a diagnosis is made when the lymphoid tissue covers more than 1/3, but less than half of the back of the nasal passages.
  • 2 degree of adenoids - adenoids at the same time cover more than 60% of the lumen of the nasopharynx. The child can no longer breathe normally in the daytime - his mouth is constantly parted. Speech problems begin - it becomes illegible, nasal appears. However, grade 2 is not considered an indication for surgery.
  • Grade 3 adenoids - at this stage the lumen of the nasopharynx is almost completely blocked by the overgrown connective tissue. The child is experiencing real torment; he cannot breathe through his nose, day or night.


Adenoids - a disease that must be controlled by a doctor. After all, adopting hypertrophied dimensions, lymphoid tissue, the initial purpose of which is to protect the body from infection, can cause serious complications:

  • Hearing problems - overgrown tissue partially blocks the ear canal.
  • Allergies - adenoids are an ideal breeding ground for bacteria and viruses, which, in turn, creates a favorable background for allergies.
  • The fall in performance, memory impairment - all this happens due to oxygen starvation of the brain.
  • Abnormal development of speech - this complication entails pathological development due to the constantly open mouth of the facial skeleton, which interferes with the normal formation of the vocal apparatus.
  • Frequent otitis - the adenoids block the openings of the auditory tubes, which contributes to the development of the inflammatory process, aggravated by, in addition, hindered by the outflow of the inflammatory secretion.
  • Persistent colds and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract - outflow of mucus in the adenoids is difficult, it stagnates, and, as a result, the infection develops, which tends to go down.
  • Bed-wetting.

A child diagnosed with adenoids does not sleep well. He wakes up at night from choking or fear of suffocation. Such patients more often than their peers are not in the mood. They are restless, anxious and apathetic. Therefore, when the first suspicions of adenoids appear, in no case should a visit to the otolaryngologist be postponed.

Treatment of adenoids in children

There are two types of treatment of the disease - surgical and conservative. Whenever possible, doctors seek to avoid surgery. But in some cases you can't do without it.

The priority method today is still conservative treatment, which may include the following measures in combination or separately:

  • Drug therapy - the use of drugs, before using which the nose must be prepared: rinse it thoroughly, clearing mucus.
  • Laser - is a fairly effective method of dealing with a disease that increases local immunity and reduces swelling and inflammation of lymphoid tissue.
  • Physiotherapy - electrophoresis, UHF, UFO.
  • Homeopathy is the safest of the known methods, well combined with traditional treatment (although the effectiveness of the method is very individual - it helps someone well, weakly to someone).
  • Climatotherapy - treatment in specialized sanatoriums not only inhibits the growth of lymphoid tissue, but also has a positive effect on the children's body as a whole.
  • Respiratory gymnastics, as well as a special massage of the face and neck area.

However, unfortunately, it is not always possible to cope with the problem conservatively. Indications for the operation include the following:

  • A serious violation of nasal breathing, when the child always breathes through the nose, and at night he occasionally has apnea (this is typical for grade 3 adenoids and is very dangerous, because all organs suffer from a lack of oxygen);
  • The development of otitis media, entailing a decrease in auditory function;
  • Maxillofacial pathologies caused by the growth of adenoids;
  • The degeneration of tissue into a malignant formation;
  • More than 4 times adenoiditis per year with conservative therapy.

However, there are a number of contraindications to the operation to remove the adenoids. These include:

  • Serious diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • Blood disorders;
  • All infectious diseases (for example, if the child was sick with the flu, then the operation can be performed no earlier than 2 months after recovery);
  • Bronchial asthma;
  • Severe allergic reactions.

So, the operation to remove the adenoids (adenoectomy) is performed only under the condition of the child’s full health, after eliminating the slightest signs of inflammation. Anesthesia is required - local or general. It should be understood that the operation is a kind of undermining the immune system of a small patient. Therefore, for a long time after the intervention, it should be protected from inflammatory diseases. The postoperative period is necessarily accompanied by drug therapy - otherwise there is a risk of re-growth of the tissue.

Many parents, even with direct indications for adenoectomy, do not agree to the operation. They motivate their decision by the fact that the removal of adenoids irrevocably undermine the immunity of their child. But it is not so. Yes, for the first time after the intervention, the protective forces will be significantly weakened. But after 2-3 months everything will return to normal - the other tonsils will take over the functions of the remote adenoids.

The life of a child with adenoids has its own characteristics. He needs to visit the ENT doctor from time to time, more often than other children to do nasal toilet, avoid catarrhal and inflammatory diseases, pay special attention to strengthening immunity. The good news is that the problem is likely to disappear by the age of 13-14. With age, the lymphoid tissue is gradually replaced by connective tissue, and nasal breathing is restored. But this does not mean that everything can be left to chance, because if you do not heal and control the adenoids, you will not be forced to wait for serious and often irreversible complications.

| 26 December 2014 | | 4 164 | Male diseases