The Adenoids in children: symptoms, degree and treatment of adenoids
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Adenoids in children

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Adenoids in children

Adenoids in children

Adenoids - a fairly common disease that occurs with the same frequency, both in girls and boys in the age of 3 to 10 years (there may be small deviations from the age norm). As a rule, parents of such children often have to "sit on sick leave", which usually leads to a call to doctors for a more detailed examination. So an adenoiditis is detected, after all, the diagnosis can be made exclusively by an otolaryngologist - on examination of other specialists (including pediatrician), the problem is not visible.



Adenoids - what is it?

Adenoids are the pharyngeal tonsil located in the nasopharynx. It has an important function - it protects the body from infections. During the period of struggle, her tissues grow, and after recovery they return to their normal size. However, due to frequent and protracted diseases, the nasopharyngeal tonsil becomes pathologically large, and in this case the diagnosis is "adenoid hypertrophy". If, in addition, inflammation occurs, the diagnosis already sounds like "adenoiditis."

Adenoids are a problem that rarely occurs in adults. But children suffer from the disease quite often. It's all about the imperfection of the immune system of young organisms, which, during infection, works with increased stress.

Causes of adenoids in children

The following causes of adenoids in children are most frequent:

  • Genetic "inheritance" - a predisposition to adenoids is transmitted genetically and is caused in this case by pathologies in the device of the endocrine and lymphatic systems (that is why in children suffering from adenoiditis, such accompanying problems as a decrease in thyroid function, excess weight, lethargy, apathy, etc., etc.).
  • Problem pregnancy, difficult births - viral diseases carried by a future mother in the first trimester, her intake during this period of toxic medications and antibiotics, hypoxia of the fetus, asphyxia of the baby and trauma during childbirth - all this, in the opinion of doctors, increases the chances that, that the child will subsequently be diagnosed with an "adenoid."
  • Early age features - the features of feeding a baby, eating disorders, the abuse of sweet and preservatives, kidney diseases - at an early age all this also affects the risk of adenoiditis in the future.

In addition, the chances of the onset of the disease increase the unfavorable ecological situation, the allergy in the history of the child and members of his family, the weakness of immunity, and, as a result, frequent viral and catarrhal diseases.

Symptoms of adenoids in children

In order to timely contact a doctor, when it is still possible to treat conservatively without traumatizing the child's psyche, you need to have a clear understanding of the symptoms of adenoids. They can be:

  • Difficulty breathing is the first and sure sign when a child constantly or very often breathes with his mouth;
  • Runny nose, which worries the child constantly, and the discharge is characterized by a serous character;
  • Sleep is accompanied by snoring and sniffing, possibly suffocation or apnea attacks;
  • Frequent rhinitis and cough (due to run-off on the back wall);
  • Problems with the hearing aid - frequent otitis, worsening of the auditory function (as the expanding tissue covers the holes of the auditory tubes);
  • Change of voice - it becomes hoarse and nasal;
  • Frequent inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, sinus sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, angina;
  • Hypoxia, resulting from oxygen starvation due to constantly shortness of breath, and the brain suffers first (which is why adolescents even cause a decrease in school performance);
  • Pathology in the development of the facial skeleton - because of the constantly opened mouth, a specific adenoid face is formed: an indifferent facial expression, an incorrect bite, lengthening and narrowing of the lower jaw;
  • Deformity of the chest - a prolonged course of the disease leads to flattening or even cavity of the chest due to a small depth of inspiration;
  • Anemia - occurs in individual cases;
  • Gastrointestinal signals - decreased appetite, diarrhea, or constipation.

All of the above conditions are signs of hypertrophic adenoids. If they for some reason become inflamed, then there is already adenoiditis, and its symptoms can be as follows:

  • temperature increase;
  • weakness;
  • enlargement of lymph nodes.

Diagnosis of adenoids

To date, in addition to a standard examination of ENT, there are other methods for recognizing adenoids:

  • Endoscopy is the safest and most effective method that allows you to see the condition of the nasopharynx on the computer screen (the condition is the absence of inflammatory processes in the body of the subject, otherwise the picture will be unreliable).
  • Radiography - allows you to draw accurate conclusions about the magnitude of adenoids, but it also has disadvantages: the radiation load on the organism of a small patient and low information content in the presence of inflammation in the nasopharynx.

Previously, the so-called finger research method was used, but today this very painful examination is not practiced.

Degrees of adenoids

Our doctors distinguish three degrees of the disease, depending on the size of the growth of the amygdala. In some other countries, there is also 4 degree of adenoids, characterized by complete overlapping of nasal passages with a connective tissue. The stage of the ENT disease is determined during the examination. But the most accurate results are given by radiography.

  • 1 degree of adenoids - at this stage of the disease the tissue covers about 1/3 of the back of the nasal passages. The child thus, as a rule, does not experience special problems with breathing during the day. At night, when the adenoids become swollen by the flow of blood to them, the patient can breathe through the mouth, snort or snore. However, at this stage we are not talking about the removal yet. Now the chances of coping with the problem in a conservative way are as great as possible.
  • 1-2 degree of adenoids - this diagnosis is made when the lymphoid tissue covers more than 1/3, but less than half the back of the nasal passages.
  • 2 degree of adenoids - adenoids at the same time cover more than 60% of the lumen of the nasopharynx. The child now can not breathe properly during the day - his mouth is constantly ajar. There are problems with speech - it becomes illegible, there is a nasal. Nevertheless, the 2nd degree is not yet considered an indication for surgical intervention.
  • 3 degree of adenoids - at this stage the lumen of the nasopharynx is almost completely blocked by the overgrown connective tissue. The child experiences real anguish, he can not breathe through his nose any day or night.

Complications

Adenoids are a disease that must be controlled by a doctor. After taking a hypertrophic size, lymphoid tissue, the primary purpose of which is to protect the body from infection, can cause serious complications:

  • Hearing problems - overgrown tissue partially overlaps the auditory meatus.
  • Allergies - adenoids are an ideal breeding ground for bacteria and viruses, which, in turn, creates a favorable background for allergies.
  • The fall in efficiency, memory impairment - all this is due to oxygen starvation of the brain.
  • Improper development of speech - this complication entails pathological development due to the constantly open mouth of the facial skeleton, which prevents the normal formation of the speech apparatus.
  • Frequent otitis media - adenoids cover the holes of the auditory tubes, which contributes to the development of the inflammatory process, aggravated, moreover, by the complicated outflow of the inflammatory secretion.
  • Constant colds and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract - the outflow of mucus in adenoids is difficult, it stagnates, and, as a consequence, the development of an infection that has the property of falling down.
  • Bed-wetting.

A child with a diagnosis of "adenoids" does not sleep well. He wakes up at night from suffocation or fear of suffocation. Such patients are often not in the mood for their peers. They are restless, anxious and apathetic. Therefore, with the appearance of the first suspicions of adenoids, in no case should the visit to the otolaryngologist be postponed.

Treatment of adenoids in children

There are two types of treatment of the disease - surgical and conservative. Whenever this is possible, doctors tend to avoid surgery. But in some cases you can not do without it.

The priority method for today is still a conservative treatment, which can include the following measures in a complex or separately:

  • Drug therapy - the use of medications, before using which the nose must be prepared: thoroughly rinse it, clearing of mucus.
  • Laser - is a fairly effective method of combating the disease, increasing local immunity and reducing edema and inflammation of lymphoid tissue.
  • Physiotherapy - electrophoresis, UHF, UFO.
  • Homeopathy is the safest of known methods, well combined with traditional treatment (although the effectiveness of the method is very individual - someone helps well, someone is weak).
  • Climatotherapy - treatment in specialized sanatoriums not only hinders the growth of lymphoid tissue, but also has a positive effect on the children's body as a whole.
  • Breathing exercises, as well as a special massage for the face and collar zone.

However, unfortunately, it is not always possible to cope with the problem conservatively. Indications for the operation can be identified as follows:

  • Serious violation of nasal breathing, when a child always breathes through the nose, and at night he periodically experiences apnea (all this is characteristic of grade 3 adenoids and is very dangerous, because all the organs suffer from lack of oxygen);
  • Development of an essendicative otitis, leading to a decrease in the auditory function;
  • Maxillofacial pathologies caused by proliferation of adenoids;
  • Rebirth of tissue in malignant formation;
  • More than 4-one repetition of adenoiditis per year with conservative therapy.

However, there are a number of contraindications to the operation to remove adenoids. These include:

  • Serious diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • Diseases of the blood;
  • All infectious diseases (for example, if the child was ill with the flu, the operation can be performed no earlier than 2 months after recovery);
  • Bronchial asthma;
  • Strong allergic reactions.

So, surgery to remove adenoids (adenectomy) is carried out only if the child is fully healthy, after eliminating the slightest signs of inflammation. An anesthetic is always used - local or general. It is necessary to understand that the operation is a kind of undermining of the immune system of a small patient. Therefore, a long time after the intervention it must be protected from inflammatory diseases. Postoperative period is necessarily accompanied by drug therapy - otherwise there is a risk of repeated proliferation of tissue.

Many parents, even with direct indications for adenectomy, do not agree to an operation. Their decision is motivated by the fact that the removal of adenoids will irretrievably undermine the immunity of their child. But it is not so. Yes, the first time after the intervention, the defensive forces will be significantly weakened. But after 2-3 months everything will come back to normal - the functions of the removed adenoids will be taken by other tonsils.

The life of a child with adenoids has its own characteristics. He must periodically visit the ENT doctor, more often than other children to make the toilet bowl, avoid catarrhal and inflammatory diseases, pay special attention to strengthening immunity. The good news is that, most likely, by the age of 13-14 the problem will disappear. With age, the lymphoid tissue gradually changes to connective tissue, and nasal breathing is restored. But this does not mean that everything can be neglected, because if you do not treat and control adenoids, serious and often irreversible complications will not keep you waiting.


| 26 December 2014 | | 4 164 | Diseases in men
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