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Brain abscess


Brain abscess

Brain abscess

Brain abscess is a pathological limited inflammatory process in the cranial cavity with purulent contents. There are several clinical forms of this disease:

  • epidural - the focus of inflammation is located above the dura mater;
  • subdural - purulent focus is localized under the solid membrane of the brain;
  • intracerebral - purulent abscess located in the brain tissue.

The causes of the disease

The cause of brain abscess is always pathological microorganisms (infection). In most cases it is a mixed infection consisting of several pathogens. The development of brain abscess contributes to a significant reduction in the body's defenses. The most frequently isolated pathogens are:

  • streptococci
  • staphylococcus,
  • bacteria,
  • Protei
  • aspergillae

These microorganisms can get into the body and cause the development of the disease in several ways:

  • hematogenous - blood flow,
  • otogenic - through the auricles,
  • odontogenic - through carious teeth,
  • traumatic - with traumatic brain injury.

The most common causes are comorbidities caused by microorganisms: caries , sinusitis , emphysema, bronchiectasis. The pathogen with the bloodstream spreads throughout the body, damaging weakened organs. Post-traumatic brain abscesses occur most often in wartime after injuries, sometimes the cause can be neurosurgical intervention.

Stage of the disease

Brain abscess does not develop in one day, it is preceded by several pathogenetic stages. Usually the process proceeds in three stages:

  1. Cerebrit or early encephalitis is the initial stage of the disease, which lasts no more than three days and is characterized by reversible changes in the tissues with properly selected antibiotic.
  2. Formation of a purulent focus - 4-9 days from the onset of the disease. In the center of the inflamed focus, a purulent cavity is formed. At this stage, the patient notes a sharp deterioration in general well-being.
  3. The third stage is the hardest, because in the absence of adequate treatment, brain tissues can be melted.

Brain Abscess Symptoms

Clinically, the disease manifests itself in three syndromes.

  1. Intoxication - a syndrome that is the body's response to the pathological inflammatory process. This syndrome manifests symptoms of general intoxication in the form of weakness, high body temperature, chills, headache, lack of appetite and dry mouth. This symptom complex appears first and the disease diagnosed at the initial stage is reversible.
  2. Cerebral - this syndrome almost immediately complements the intoxication. After 24-48 hours, severe intolerable headache, dizziness, up to loss of consciousness and coma, nausea, vomiting, sudden unexplained mood swings join general intoxication. At this stage of the disease is expressed violation of higher nervous functions.
  3. Focal neurological - indicates a deep progressive purulent process in the brain. The symptoms of this syndrome resemble the signs of a stroke: impaired speech, vision, partial paresis, or paralysis.

Diagnosis of the disease

The main purpose of the diagnostic procedures for brain abscess is:

  • in determining the presence of a suppurative focus in the brain,
  • in identifying the cause and nature of the infectious purulent inflammatory process,
  • in conducting a topical diagnosis of purulent brain damage.

To this end, the attending physician will definitely prescribe a complex of diagnostic procedures, which consists of:

  • general and biochemical blood tests,
  • urinalysis,
  • cytological and bacteriological examination of cerebrospinal fluid,
  • polymerase chain reaction,
  • computed tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging,
  • x-ray examination.

Brain Abscess Treatment

Brain abscess is a serious disease that requires long-term adequate treatment under the supervision of highly qualified specialists. The earlier a disease is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. It is very good if brain abscess is diagnosed at the first pathogenetic stage, when all processes are still reversible. For a quick therapeutic effect, treatment should be comprehensive and include:

  • detoxification therapy
  • taking antibacterial drugs
  • anti-inflammatory drugs,
  • general strengthening immunomodulating therapy,
  • therapy of the primary focus of infection,
  • symptomatic treatment
  • correction of vital functions.

Medical prognosis and prevention

Making predictions for such a serious brain disease is quite difficult. The risk of death is always very high. In many cases, brain dysfunctions persist for life. The result of treatment and the patient’s future life depends directly on the timeliness of diagnosis and treatment.

The main method of preventing abscess of the brain, as well as many other diseases, is the timely treatment of foci of chronic infection, immunity strengthening, hardening, balanced diet, sports.

It is worth noting that brain abscess is a serious inflammatory inflammatory disease, which is fraught with consequences. When the first symptoms appear, it is urgent to seek medical attention. Health is the greatest value of human life and you need to treat it carefully and carefully.

| 26 December 2014 | | 367 | Surgery