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Abaktal instruction manual

Abaktal Abaktal is an antibiotic belonging to the 1st generation fluoroquinolone class.

International name: Pefloxacinum

Release form

  • tablets containing 20 or 40 mg of the active substance (in the package may be 4, 10, 20 or 50 pieces);
  • vials (volume 100 ml) or ampoules (volume 5 ml) containing an 8% solution for injection.

Composition

  • 1 tablet contains 558.5 mg of perfloxacin mesylate dihydrate (this corresponds to 400 mg of “pure” perfloxacin);
  • 1 ml of the solution contains 80 mg perfloxacin.

Mechanism of action

The drug affects the gene apparatus of microbes by suppressing the replication of DNA molecules (blocking DNA gyrase). This leads to the fact that the pathogen of an infectious disease dies. The pronounced bactericidal effect of the drug is associated with the presence of a fluorine atom in its chemical formula. An important aspect of the action of the antibiotic is that it can kill not only those bacteria that are in the resting stage, but also those that actively proliferate.

Pharmacokinetics

  After taking the tablet form Abaktal quickly undergoes absorption and enters the systemic circulation (bioavailability level - 100%). The maximum concentration of the drug in the blood is recorded in 1.5 - 2 hours after ingestion. The degree of binding of antibiotic molecules with proteins is about 30%. Abaktal penetrates well into such internal media as saliva, sputum, bronchial secretions and amniotic fluid. A high concentration of the drug is also noted in the prostate gland and bones of the skeleton.

The main chemical reactions associated with the metabolism of Abaktal, pass in the liver. The drug is excreted mainly by the kidneys.

After a single intake of the body, the half-life of the antibiotic is 8 hours, after repeated - 12 hours.

In the urine, trace Abactal concentrations are recorded 3-4 days after the last administration of the drug.

With symptoms of renal failure, the half-life and plasma concentration of the drug do not significantly change.

In the case of liver failure, the half-life of Abaktal from the systemic blood flow may increase two or more times, which requires an appropriate correction of the frequency of administration of the antibiotic.

Spectrum of antimicrobial activity: both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms (are more sensitive) are sensitive to the drug, among them:

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Klebsiella spp.
  • Escherechia coli
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Serratia spp.
  • Haemophilus influenza
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Enterobacter spp.
  • Citrobacter spp.
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Shigella spp.
  • Proteus spp. (only indole-positive strains).

The following types of microorganisms have an average level of sensitivity to Abacal:

  • Streptococcus spp. (including pathogen of lobar pneumonia - Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Chlamidia spp.
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Pseudomonas spp.
  • Mycoplasma spp.
  • Acinetobacter spp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, as well as spirochetes have a high level of resistance to Abactal.


Indications for use

Treatment of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms with a high or moderate level of sensitivity to Abactal:

  • Diseases of the respiratory apparatus ( bronchitis , pharyngitis , sinusitis, pneumonia, sore throat , cystic fibrosis).
  • Otitis.
  • Urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis, cystitis , urethritis, endometritis, vaginitis, prostatitis, tubular abscess).
  • Some sexually transmitted diseases ( chlamydia and gonorrhea ).
  • Infectious diseases of the digestive system (typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, cholera, empyema of the gallbladder).
  • Skin lesions (infected ulcers, burns, wound surfaces. Possible use for the treatment of abscesses).
  • Septic conditions (peritonitis, endocarditis, meningococcal meningitis, intra-abdominal abscesses).
  • Infectious diseases in persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency.
  • Treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections.

Mode of application

The drug can be used as a means of monotherapy or in combination with other antibacterial agents. The average daily dose of Abaktal is 800 mg. To maintain a constant concentration of antibiotic in the serum, it is recommended to inject 400 mg of the drug 2 times a day.

During treatment of urinary tract infections, it is permissible to use Pefloxacin, 1 tablet (400 mg) 1 time per day.

In the treatment of gonorrhea (uncomplicated course), a dose of 800 mg of Abaktal is used once.

The maximum dose received by the patient within 24 hours should not exceed 1.2 grams.

With symptoms of liver failure, Abaktal is prescribed at a dosage of 400 mg once every 24-48 hours (depending on the severity of the disease).

In tablet form, Abactal is best taken with food in order to prevent the occurrence of unwanted reactions. In this case, the tablets can not be divided or crushed.

Infusion therapy with the drug is carried out only in the hospital after a test for tolerability of Pefloxacin. In / in the drip, as a rule, 400 mg of the antibiotic are prescribed 2 times a day (with a strict interval of 12 hours). The drug is administered slowly to avoid the creation of toxic concentrations in vital organs (the duration of infusion should be at least an hour).

For diseases that threaten the life of the patient, it is permissible at the initial stage of pharmacotherapy to introduce once / into 800 mg of Pefloxacin.

In the surgical wards to prevent the patient from becoming infected in the postoperative period, treatment with Abactal begins before surgical interventions (400-800 mg of the drug is administered intravenously in the drip).

If patients have symptoms of liver failure, a single dose of the drug is calculated by the formula: 8 mg x body weight (kg).

In patients of the older age group, dose adjustment is carried out depending on the presence of comorbidities.

Time of onset of effect: assessment of the level of efficacy of therapy with Abacalum is conducted 72 hours after the first use of the antibacterial drug.

Contraindications

  • Age up to 18 years.
  • Period of pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Allergic reactions to drugs of the fluoroquinolone group in history.
  • The drug should be used with caution in patients with exacerbation of mental or neurological diseases, as well as in case of liver failure.

Use during pregnancy

Pefloxacin is prohibited for use in obstetric practice. When using an antibacterial drug, breastfeeding should be discontinued for the entire period of treatment.

Interaction with other pharmacological agents

  • It is necessary to avoid co-administration of Abaktal with drugs belonging to the class of antacids (Maalox, Almagel, etc.). If necessary, the interval between the use of the inside of these medicines should be at least 2 hours.
  • In the case of combining Pefloxacin with antihistamines (ranitidine, cimetidine), the frequency of taking the antibiotic increases due to an increase in the time of its circulation in blood plasma.
  • If Abaktal is used with indirect anticoagulants, then hemorrhagic conditions may occur.
  • Do not combine pefloxacin with chloramphenicol and tetracyclines (antagonist drugs).

Side effects

  • Central nervous system: dizziness, convulsions , headache, anxiety, hallucinations, sleep disorders, tremor, depression, sleep disturbance.
  • Digestive system: loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, taste perversion, dyspepsia, vomiting. Perhaps a transient increase in the level of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase.
  • Urinary System: crystalluria. Extremely rare - interstitial nephritis, hematuria.
  • Musculoskeletal system: tendonitis, myalgia, arthritis. Cases of the appearance of Achilles tendon ruptures are described.
  • At the injection site possible phlebitis.
  • Immediate allergy reactions.
  • Others: transient erythrocyte or leukocyte change.

Overdose

Confusion, vomiting, nausea, hallucinations may occur. With repeated excess of the dose may develop convulsive syndrome, loss of consciousness up to the level of coma.

Treatment of overdose is carried out in the poison control center. First aid to the victim consists in washing the stomach, setting a siphon enema and taking activated charcoal inside.

Treatment of intoxication with pefloxacin by hemodialysis is ineffective.

Analogs

Analogs by code ATC level 4:

Levolet R, Norbaktin, Ziprinol, Ofloksin, Lomefloksatsin, Zanotsin, Elefloks, Tsiprobai, Lomfloks, Sparflo, Tarivid, Zofloks, Levofloksatsin, Floratsid, Glevo, Aveloks, Fleksid

Analogue on the active substance:

Pefloxacin

Rate Abaktal on a 5-point scale:
1 звезда2 звезды3 звезды4 звезды5 звезд (votes: 3 , average rating 3.33 out of 5)


Reviews of the drug Abaktal:

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  • | Marina | September 5, 2015

    Took Abaktal with bronchitis. In principle, it helped. The only thing that killed the microflora. Dropped 2 days. But perhaps this is after any antibiotics. My rating is 4 out of 5.

  • | Olya | September 6, 2015

    Indeed kills microflora. After taking Abaktala, you should definitely drink probiotics.

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